Every year, a new budget was laid out by our Finance Minister. New budget statements are announced every April of the year to enhance the government policies.
Compare the last three budgets (Budget 2018, Budget 2019 and Budget 2020) to prepare a report outlining the following.
1.Achieve an understanding of how Singapore uses the Budget to achieve its objectives
2.Analyse the Tax Incentives Singapore provides for Innovation to remain competitive amongst other neighbouring countries.
3.The population of most developed countries is aging and the birth rate has declined over recent decades. This will have an impact on tax revenue and the delivery of government services. Evaluate the tax incentives that were provided to mitigate the issues on aging population and reducing birth rates.
4.Make suitable recommendations for future budgets based on the analysis you made on above sections.
This is an individual piece of work consisting of both a written report and a digital mood board with audio recording of your voice explaining the mood board embedded into the slide. You are required to write a report and prepare a mood board based on the following scenario:
You have just secured a job as Hospitality Business Development Manager for a country of your choice.
You are required to create an innovative hospitality business idea – Either a hotel OR a restaurant – and demonstrate the following:
1.How historical aspects of the international hospitality industry and your chosen country have influenced your business idea, e.g. particular design elements / traditions / customs / themes / food
2.Where your business is positioned within the wider international hospitality industry, using examples from other hospitality businesses to illustrate this
3.Understanding of the management systems used in the hospitality industry and the advantages and disadvantages of these systems
You should use recognised theories/frameworks and market intelligence information to justify your choices and you should provide a full list of citations and a reference list according to Harvard conventions within your report.
A company in one of the application areas listed below needs to replace their computing infrastructure. The company requires a high-performance computer system to cater for their business needs.
• Weather forecasting
• Natural Language Processing
• Image Processing
• Data centre
• Modelling and Simulation
• Materials and Manufacturing Industries
Propose a complete and working computer system for the company. This proposal should include a breakdown of the main components of the system.
Justify the main components of the proposed system considering their performance, cost, and availability. You should provide parts identification for all components used. Discuss the parallel processing techniques used in enhancing the performance of these components, including any instruction-level parallelism, data-level parallelism and thread-level parallelism concepts used. Indicate details of the Instruction Set Architecture used in this system.
Choose one of the components (or, sub-components) of the system proposed e.g. memory, interconnection, processor, etc. Conduct a literature review of the state-of the-art performance of this component (or, sub-component). This should include a discussion of its functionalities, features used to enhance its performance, any trade-offs, and the effect of the enhancement of its performance on the performance of the entire system.
Discuss the benchmark suite that would be suitable for measuring the performance of the system, compared to similar systems.
Using the x86, ARM or MIPS Instruction Set, write an assembly language programme to implement an algorithm (you should agree on the algorithm to implement with the module leader). The algorithm should include input and output operations, selection, loop, a subroutine call and some arithmetic/logic operations. Provide corresponding machine code for the instructions used in this program. Use comments to demonstrate an understanding of the instructions, registers and stacks used in the program.
Part one is the design and development of a portable wireless home automation system. The system requirements are -
Device 1 is a remote control device. It can be used with serial monitor on a host PC, but higher marks will be given to those who use the LCD screen. (portable)
Device 2 is outside the house. It controls the outside light (turning it on automatically when the sun goes down and off when the sun comes up). It also controls the gates with a servo.
Device 3 controls the interior light. The room has a simple (on/off) but also a dimmer function, meaning that the light level can be altered.
Device 4 passive fire detection (infra-red). Detection is from one single source.
All instructions are sent from the remote control. BUT whenever there is a state change at one of the other devices, the remote control is informed.
Any other design decisions are yours to make.
Part two is the integration of a mobile web/App interface with the system designed and created in part 1.
Apply what you have learned on the module to design, implement and document the system as a whole.
Documentation should include assumptions, research into relevant toppics to inform your design decisions, final design by way of a flow diagram or similar, critical evaluation of design and implementation process as well as ideas for expansion of the system.
An individual technical report detailing the design, implementation and testing of the system is required from each student. The report must include the following (but may include other information as well).
A report should allow the reader to replicate your design and implementation exactly. It should be written in the past-passive tense (‘The LEDs were placed in the printed circuit board’, there is no ‘I’, ‘We’, ‘He’ or ‘They’). It is written in the past tense, because it describes what has already happened.
A report should contain the following:
1.Abstract and Introduction.
An abstract is often written after the rest of the report (although it is submitted at the very front of the report and is the first thing read). It provides a paragraph or two that summarise the contents, results and conclusions of the report that follows. An introduction explains the rationale behind the project and outlines the problem.
2.Aim(s) and Objectives.
Briefly, the aim explains the desired final outcome of the project. Each objective outlines a step that must be undertaken to reach the aim.
Sometimes this takes the form of a literature review, looking at what has been accomplished in related areas. Research also covers the support for design decisions and assumptions and the location of any information that aided the project. For instance, if you were asked to return a haptic output from your arduino, what would you use? You’d need to investigate what ‘haptic’ meant first. You’d have to reference the information you found in the document. You’d then have to investigate available methods, what other people had used and how. You’d be expected to reference this material too, with a brief discussion. You’d then be expected to make a decision on what haptic feedback to use and justify why it was the most suitable for your project. The University expects Harvard referencing.
4.Project Design and Method.
In this module, we deal with the interface between hardware and software. Therefore, your design and method should include the design of the hardware (including how it was arrived at, why it is suitable, what it is intended to accomplish), software (flow diagrams for software design, how variables map to devices, what inputs are expected etc) and the interaction between the two.
A description of which elements of your project you successfully completed, issues you overcame successfully and issues you were not able to overcome. Describe each part of your code (simply edit the comments you included in your software into something that makes sense to the reader). Also include any changes that were necessary to your original design that did not become clear until you were at the implementation stage. Include your particular circuit design, indicating which pins on the Arduino were used, for what and what variables they mapped to. Your code should be included as an appendix.
Discuss how successful your project was, what you would have done differently and which parts you are particularly happy with. Be honest.
Bowling (2011: 362) argues that ‘transnational criminology is a rapidly developing field that sets out specifically to understand crime and justice beyond national boundaries’. Outline the implications of this statement with particular reference to a recent incidence of transnational (cross-border) crime.
You must cover the following:
1) The nature of the crime (e.g. the harm caused; the social background of the powerful offenders involved in that type of crime, and their victims; whether the incident might be defined as a crime according to international law or to international civil society; its underlying and more immediate causes)
2) The responses to the crime (e.g. the extent to which they were coordinated between police and other justice authorities in different countries; the extent to which they involved non-state as well as state actors; their effectiveness).
3) You should also integrate the theoretical framework set out in the lecture slide presentation for week 7 and summarized below:
Transnational criminology illustrates a blurring of boundaries between the following 4 areas:
1. Transnational criminology questions the distinction traditionally made between ‘national and international’ and focuses instead on the growing significance of borderless crimes and borderless justice.
2. Transnational criminology challenges the boundary usually drawn between crime and war.
3. Transnational criminology challenges the classic distinction between crimes of the powerful and crimes of the powerless.
4. Transnational criminology questions the distinction usually drawn between public and private institutions (approaches to transnational crime).
Republic of Galaxia is a rich and powerful archipelagic state. It has one of the world’s highest gross domestic product, and one of the world’s most powerful and advanced military powers. It has a population of around 250 million people. Galaxia is also one of the permanent members of the United Nations (UN) Security Council. Galaxia’s neighboring states is the Republic of Twixia.
The Republic of Twixia gained its independence from Henbog in 1950. Both Galaxia and Henbog are in a political union with each other and with 10 other states. Twixia is not in this union. Twixia is a developing state, with good farmlands, and natural beauty attracting tourism every year. The population of Twixia was approximately 40 million in 2015 but in recent years many people emigrated to other places due to high unemployment rate which in 2015 was at about 35%.
Galaxia is therefore considering taking the following protective measures:
- to freeze all of Twixia’s financial assets in Galaxia banks;
- to carry out pre-dawn attacks against Twixia’s largest military base, where the hypersonic missiles are said to be developed, as well as destroying the majority of its short distance rocket launchers;
- to get the military support of two neighbouring states under the principle of collective self-defence;
- to provide massive financial support to the political opposition, and engage in online electoral interference in order to ensure defeat of the current Twixian government in the upcoming general elections;
- to send 50 heavily weaponised military helicopters to Twixia, and request them to use all necessary means in order to safely bring back the 750 Galaxian citizens based in Twixia;
Galaxia argues that it is not a party to these treaties. Moreover,
they were concluded in the early days of space exploration and are therefore inadequate to the modern-day space exploitation. Both Galaxia and Twixia are parties to the following treaties:
• the 1945 United Nations Charter;
• the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties; Twixia is a party to the following treaties:
• The 1967 Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies of 1967 (The Outer Space Treaty).
• Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies of 1979 (The Moon Agreement).
The chief executive of a mid sized manufacturing company has hired hired you to disigne the site and any other conditions necessary for employess to feel more empowered.
Describe five important conditions you would ensure existed in this plant to improve empowerment among production employess .your answer should also define empowerment and the four dimensions of empowerment.
In the workplace, you have been assigned to a new project. For this assignment you can chose what this project is for example it could be “indentifying poison and edible mushrooms”, “recognizing different groups of customers” or “recognising purchasing habits in supermarket” or “tracking different types of land use around rainforests” … you may use one of these examples or come up with your own.
At your next meeting with management, you have been asked to explain how ONE of the following algorithms works:
• ID3 (Information Gain Decision Tree) (classification)
Bogs (ombrotrophic peatlands, i.e. predominantly fed by rainwater, from Greek ombros, rain, and trephein, to feed) are exceptional ecosystems that may show high storage rates for nutrients and carbon, while nutrient availability is very low due to ombrotrophic conditions (water and nutrient input solely by rain) limiting the growth of vascular plants. A set of traits, unique to Sphagnum mosses, enable their dominance in bog ecosystems. Sphagnum has evolved a high nutrient use efficiency to cope with low input rates of nutrients [1,2]. The atmospheric input of nutrients is efficiently retained in moss peat and decomposition rates are low, due to the high retention of rainwater, acidic conditions and poorly degradable organic matter . In addition, a substantial part of the C [carbon] losses (including CH4) are refixed by Sphagnum as growth and photosynthesis have been shown to increase upon elevated CO2 in porewater [4–6]. This combination of traits enables Sphagnum to avoid being outcompeted by vascular plants. However, increased availability of nitrogen, e.g. by high airborne inputs, favours vascular plants at the expense of Sphagnum mosses. Displacement of Sphagnum by vascular bog plants often leads to reduced storage of nutrients, carbon (peat) and water [7–9]. In comparison to vascular plants, Sphagnum spp. show low decomposition rates due their chemical composition [2,3], in addition to anoxic and acidic conditions, and may still have similar primary production rates [10,11]. Sphagnum peat may therefore accumulate substantial amounts of nutrients, if considered m-2 y-1, even though nutrient concentrations in Sphagnum are lower. …
An in-text citation from this source would look like: Sphagnum sp. are adapted to low nutrient conditions and show low rates of nutrient release from decomposition (Fritz et al. 2014), and the citation would look like:
From van Breeman (1995):
Recent research on the organo-chemical composition of Sphagnum and on the fate of its litter has further clarified how this plant builds acidic, nutrient-poor, cold and anoxic peat bogs. The bog environment helps Sphagnum to outcompete other plants for light. Its morphology, anatomy, physiology and composition make it an effective ecosystem engineer and at the same time benefit the plant in the short term. This may have facilitated the evolution of the genus.
Fresh Sphagnum mainly consists of polysaccharides5, made up of glucose and galacturonic acid units. The latter are sugars in which the CH2OH side-chain at C6 has been replaced by a carboxylic acid group, which give Sphagnum its high cation exchange capacity and are largely responsible for its acidic character6.
Sphagnum lacks lignin (early reports about lignin in Sphagnum are now attributed to contamination with vascular plants20). Sphagnum is rich in phenols, including the genus-specific, very stable Sphagnum acid [p- hydroxy-beta-(carboxymethyl)-cinnamic acid]21. Sphagnum acid is present in a polyphenolic network polymer that is probably linked covalently to cell wall biopolymers20. This combination confers one lignin- like property (poor substrate quality) to Sphagnum tissue, without providing the structural strength typical of woody tissue. Indeed, in spite of its lack of lignin and its high polysaccharide content 'almost nothing eats
Sphagnum '1. Anatomical and biochemical details of Sphagnum may be preserved in peat for millennia, with the bulk of the polysaccharide still present after 70 000 years20. In the acrotelm, Sphagnum litter decomposes more slowly (mass loss 10-20% yr-1) than leaves of most other plants in their natural habitat (40-80% yr-1). … Sphagnum peat is famous for its excellent preservation, not only of Sphagnum, but also of remains of human and animal bodies, and of organic artifacts. This was attributed to a tanning-like process involving 5-keto-D-mannuronic acid, associated with sphagnan (a complex pectin-like material that is covalently linked to cellulosic and amyloid-like chains in Sphagnum29). Sphagnan would suppress microbial activity by strongly binding N, by inactivating exo-enzymes and by sequestering essential multivalent metal cation by chelation. While Painter29 found no polyphenols responsible for tanning in Sphagnum peat, tannin-like compounds have been observed in Sphagnum more recently20. Continuous waterlogging is essential for preserving peat. Aeration and decomposition following drainage irreversibly increases the permeability of the peat, which then becomes unsuitable as a substrate for Sphagnum30. … The morphological, anatomical, physiological and organochemical properties of Sphagnum give it attributes (see Fig. 4) that help form acidic, nutrient-poor, heat-insulating and slowly permeable peat. Depressed growth of vascular plants increases (1) light availability and (2) wetness, via decreased evapotranspiration10, both of which positively feed back to the growth of Sphagnum, and thus to peat growth. Accumulation of peat is further promoted by feedbacks involving physico-chemical processes and depression of decomposers (Fig. 4). … In conclusion, the available literature gives some direct and much circumstantial evidence that four factors are mainly responsible for adverse conditions for vascular plants on raised bogs. They are (1) low nutrient availability (2) anoxia, (3) low temperatures and (4) high acidity.
Under favourable external conditions, Sphagnum growth, once initiated, stimulates peat growth and forms raised bogs. The morphological, anatomical, physiological and organochemical properties of Sphagnum give it attributes (see Fig. 4) that help form acidic, nutrient-poor, heat-insulating and slowly permeable peat. Depressed growth of vascular plants increases (1) light availability and (2) wetness, via decreased evapotranspiration10, both of which positively feed back to the growth of Sphagnum, and thus to peat growth. Accumulation of peat is further promoted by feedbacks involving physico-chemical processes and depression of decomposers (Fig. 4). …
An in-text citation from this source would look like: The chemical structure of Sphagnum creates acidic conditions that limit the growth of competing plants (van Breeman 1995), and the citation would look like
From Turetsky et al. (2012):
In general, mosses possess several key traits that allow them to persist in cold regions, including a high degree of phenotypic plasticity and a broad response of net assimilation rates to temperature. Mosses can be regarded as opportunistic in terms of CO2 exchange in that they are able to respond positively to favorable environmental conditions where and when they occur, with CO2 assimilation even during low temperature and irradiance (Kallio & Heinonen, 1975; Oechel & Sveinbjörnsson, 1978; Harley et al., 1989). Key functional traits include tolerance to dessication and the ability to switch quickly between metabolic activity and rest. While vascular plants avoid dessication during drought by actively regulating internal water content (i.e. homoiohydry) through morphological adaptations such as well-developed conducting systems, leaf stomata, cuticle, and roots, these features are all poorly developed or absent in mosses.
Instead, mosses tolerate periods of drought largely through physiological responses, such as by suspending metabolism (controlled cessation) when water is not available and by withstanding cell dessication.
In their Tansley review, Proctor & Tuba (2002) argued that the moss strategy of poikilohydry ‘is not merely the primitive starting point of plants that failed to achieve homoiohydry, but a highly evolved strategy of adaptation in its own right, optimal in some situations and at least a viable alternative in some others’. When faced with dessication, net assimilation rates in mosses usually decline rapidly as tissue water content falls below the threshold required to maintain full turgor (Longton, 1988). Their cytoplasm can survive at low water contents for long periods, and upon rehydration resume metabolic activity. This strategy, however, has metabolic costs, as recovery is preceded by a burst of respiration that results in a net energy loss (Skre & Oechel, 1981). Desiccation time affects the timing and completeness of recovery, and extended desiccation can cause intense respiration and death. While many moss species can tolerate dessication, there is a wide variety of adaptations in terms of water economy among mosses (Vitt & Glime, 1984), as well as large variation in the relation of desiccation tolerance to desiccation intensity (Proctor & Tuba, 2002).
In general, these traits are not considered to be specific adaptations to cold region environments, but almost certainly increase the fitness of mosses growing in harsh northern conditions.…
An in-text citation from this source would look like: Mosses have the ability to survive drying for periods of time and come return to growth when conditions improve (Turetsky et al. 2012), and the citation would look like:
Pick one of the traits described in the case study information posted to create a scientific argument that the trait is adaptive to the species’environment. Provide evidence for your claim from the case study information by discussing how the trait increases fitness at the individual level (i.e. a heritable trait that increasesreproductive success / survival of offspring), and you should further justify (rationalize) how the trait has persisted at the population level by describing how it is selected for within the population.